Friday, June 30, 2017

Preterm birth rates have increased in the US

Preterm birth rates have increased in the US

Almost 10 per cent of US-born babies are born prematurely and the prices of premature babies are rising, a new government report shows.

Also, more low birth weight babies were born last year than in previous years, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports Friday.

With half of all U.S. Births covered by Medicaid, these rates would be worse if Congress cuts back on the program, said advocates. Medicaid covers 75 million people, including nearly 36 million children, according to data released last week by the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Service.

Already the United States has much worse rates of infant mortality, premature birth and low birth weight babies than other industrialized countries. The new data from the CDC National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) show no improvement.

"The increase in the premature birth rate is an alarming indication that the health of pregnant women and babies is going in the wrong direction in our country," said Stacey Stewart, President of the March of Dimes, a charity organization focused on the termination of birth defects ,

"Pregnancy is the number one cause of death among babies and a leading cause of life-long disability," she added.

While births fell across the US as a whole, high-risk births were found more frequently, the NCHS.

"The premature birth rate rose for the second year in a row to 9.84 percent in 2016. The low birth weight had also risen to 8.16 percent for the second year," wrote the NCHS team in their report.

Related: Medicaid Birth Rose When Texas Defunded Planned Parenthood

"After the fall of 8 percent from 2007 to 2014, the premature birth has risen for the second year in a row." The United States defines premature births as it happens 37 weeks of pregnancy.

The report looks only at numbers and does not go into the reasons for the premature birth and births with low weight. But a lack of prenatal care, obesity, tobacco consumption and some fertility treatments can all lead to premature births. Adolescents and women who have babies too close together also have higher rates of premature birth.

The NCHS team found that women of Asian ethnic origin had the lowest birth rates at 8.6 percent, while the African-American women had the highest rates with 13.75 percent of all births.

Florida, Georgia, Hawaii, Illinois, Kentucky, Louisiana, Maryland, Mississippi, Missouri, North Carolina, Ohio, Oklahoma, South Carolina, Tennessee, Texas and West Virginia. Washington, D.C., was also included.

States in which 10 percent or more of women received late prenatal care or prenatal care: Arkansas, New Mexico and Texas. In Vermont, only 1.6 percent of women got late prenatal care or no prenatal care.

Only New Hampshire, Oregon and Vermont had preterm rates below 8 percent.

Related: Too many babies die on their first day

"It is unacceptable that black women have a preterm birth rate that is about 50 percent higher than the rate among white women.The chance of a baby's survival should not depend on where a baby is born or income, race And ethnicity of their mother, "said Stewart.

The March of Dimes said that the health care bill is currently making its way through Congress can make matters worse.

"As the Senate takes into account the Better Care Reconciliation Act (BCRA), we estimate that up to 6.5 million women of childbearing age could lose health insurance. Combined with proposed rules changes, this would mean that less pregnant women receive prenatal care And less premature babies would get the specialized treatment they need to survive and thrive, "the organization said in a statement.

According to the Save the Children, the United States has the highest rate of babies who die on the day they are born in the industrialized world. It says 130 countries have lower preterm birth rates than the U.S.

The US fertility rate has just hit a historic low. Some demographers are freaked out.

The US fertility rate has just hit a historic low. Some demographers are freaked out.

The United States are in the middle, which is some worries of a baby crisis. The number of births has declined for years and has just hit a historic low. If the trend continues - and the experts do not agree, whether the country is facing economic and cultural unrest.

According to the preliminary 2016 population data released by the centers for disease control and prevention on Friday, the number of births fell by 1 per cent from a year before, bringing the overall birth rate to 62.0 births per 1,000 women aged 15 to 44 The trend is driven by a decline in birth rates for adolescents and 20-somethings. The birth rate for women in their 30s and 40s increased - but not enough to lessen the lower numbers in their younger counterparts.

The birth rate of a country is one of the most important measures of demographic health. The figure must be within a certain range, called "replacement level", in order to keep a population stable so that it neither grows nor shrinks. If too low, there is a risk that we will not be able to replace the aging workforce and have enough tax revenues to keep the economy stable. Countries like France and Japan, which have low birth rates, have set pro-family policies to try to encourage couples to have babies. The flip side can also be a problem. Births that are too high can weigh resources such as clean water, food, shelter and social services, problems with India, where the fertility rate has fallen in the past decades but still remains high.

The debate is about whether the United States is being led by a "national emergency," as some have feared, or whether it is a blip, and the birth rate will soon be cut off.

"It's about a thousand years," says Donna Strobino, a professor of population, family and reproductive health at the Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health.

Those who claim to be young adults with fragile egos who were born in the 2000s living in the cellars of their parents and bouncing from job to job turns out to be much less likely to babies To have at least so far. Some experts think that Millennials only shift parenthood, while others fear that they will choose not to have children at all.

Strobino is among those who are optimistic and see the hope in the data. She points out that the case of birth rates in adolescents - an age when many pregnancies tend to be unplanned - is something we want and that the highest birth rates among women are now 25 to 34 years old.

"What that is is a trend of women who are becoming more educated and mature, I'm not sure this is bad," she said.

U.S. Teen birth rate hits a record low

U.S. Teen birth rate hits a record low

Oh baby how low can you go?

The youthful birth rate in the US fell by 9% from the previous year to a record low in 2016, according to the new government report.

The decline in youth maternity rates follows a long-term trend. The data just published show that the youthful birth rate for women between the ages of 15 and 19 has decreased by 67% since 1991. The number of births for women aged 15-19 years was 209,480 last year.

Elise Berlan, MD, of the Nationwide Children's Hospital, called the youthful rate a "phenomenal decline", adding the drop to better access and use of contraceptives. "We know that the overwhelming majority of youthful births are unintentional."

Monday, June 5, 2017

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML) symptoms

All the symptoms described also occur in the context of other, comparatively harmless diseases and in most cases are not associated with leukemia. If symptoms persist, however, it is advisable to have the cause clarified by a physician. If there is indeed acute myelogenous leukemia, a therapy must be started as soon as possible.

Diagnosis of AML

In the case of suspected leukemia extensive examinations of the blood and bone marrow are necessary in order to first confirm the diagnosis and subsequently determine the type of leukemia. By means of so-called imaging methods , the extent of the disease is also determined.

If the physician / internist finds evidence of an acute leukemia due to illness and physical examinations, he will first examine the blood . If the suspicion of leukemia is confirmed, for example, because immature cells are found in the blood, anemia or thrombopenia is present, the diagnosis must also be assured by the analysis of the bone marrow. Such an examination is carried out at a specialized hospital by a specialist for blood and cancer (hematologists / oncologists). He removes bone marrow from the hip bone or bone (bone marrow) with a syringe under local anesthesia. This short outpatient procedure can be a bit unpleasant for the patient as it takes a few minutes for the bone marrow to enter the syringe.

The subsequent laboratory studies of bone marrow include the biological properties, external cell features and genetic changes of the infected cells. With the help of the analysis, the exact subform of the disease can be determined in addition to the type of leukemia. Because the subforms of acute myelogenous leukemia differ significantly in their course of disease, prognosis, and response to different therapy, the in-depth study of bone marrow is crucial to develop a suitable plan for the treatment.

When an AML is detected, additional examinations are necessary depending on the individual case in order to rule out the involvement of other organs of the body with blasts. These include chest radiographs, computer tomography and ultrasound examination of the abdomen and heart. In exceptional cases a sample is taken from the spinal fluid ( lumbar puncture ) to determine if there is leukemia in the brain.

In the further course after the start of therapy, bone marrow punctures and other control examinations are always necessary. For example, MRD diagnostics can be used to check whether the leukemia has completely re-formed (remission).

Classification of AML

Acute myelogenous leukemia is not a uniform disease, but rather a group of different subforms, which can be distinguished from each other by their biological properties, external cell features and genetic changes. The assignment to a certain subform plays an important role for the therapy decision since the different subforms differ from one another in terms of the course of the disease and the chances of healing (prognosis) and are differently sensitive to chemotherapy. Basically, one distinguishes between primary and secondary AML: If the AML occurs independently and without previous bone marrow or cancer diseases, one speaks of a primary or de novo AML. A secondary AML develops from another bone marrow disease (eg a myelodysplastic syndrome ) or arises as a result of an earlier chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Since the secondary AML is usually associated with several genetic changes, it has a poorer prognosis than the primary AML.
The classification of AML nowadays is mostly based on the WHO classification . This combines the older FAB classification, in which the blasts are subdivided into eight subgroups (M0-M7) according to their external, microscopically visible traits, with genetic features of the leukemic cells. The external characteristics as well as the underlying genetic changes can be determined by means of comparative laboratory tests such as microscopy, cytochemistry, immunophenotyping, molecular genetics, cytogenetics or in situ hybridization.

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL)

Acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) is a rare subform of AML diagnosed in approximately 5% of AML patients. In this disease, a special genetic change can be detected, which is called translocation t (15; 17). It leads to the formation of the defective protein PML-RARA, which is causally involved in the development of the disease. The APL has a special role with regard to the course of the disease, the prognosis and the treatment. The disease occurs mainly in younger patients and is associated with a good prognosis. By combining chemotherapy with all-trans-retinoic acid (ATRA), which stimulates leukemia cells, more than 75% of patients can now be cured. A prerequisite is, however, the treatment in a specialized leukemia center, because the APL often causes a disturbance of the blood coagulation and is therefore associated with a high rate of bleeding complications.

Treatment of acute myelogenous leukemia

AML is a serious condition that leads to death untreated within a few weeks. It is therefore extremely important that a therapy be initiated immediately after the diagnosis. The most important component of the treatment is the chemotherapy with an accompanying therapy for the treatment of the side effects. For this purpose, a bone marrow transplant may occur in a particular case. Radiation therapy plays a subordinate role at AML. All components of the therapy serve to kill the leukemia cells as completely as possible in the body, so that the bone marrow can resume its original function - the formation of blood.

The treatment of an AML should be carried out at a clinic with experience in the treatment of leukemia, especially the AML. The clinic should have access to the latest state of research and carry out the necessary special examinations. You can find out more about the right clinic here . Because the treatment is lengthy and burdensome, patients and their relatives should inform themselves thoroughly about the planned procedure. The treating physician will speak with the patient in detail and inform him about all treatment options.


In chemotherapy , a patient receives drugs called cytotoxic drugs that specifically inhibit the growth of leukemia cells. Since a single drug is usually not sufficient to destroy all blasts, several drugs are combined with different actions. They are given as an infusion, syringe or in the form of tablets. Chemotherapy is divided into several cycles separated by breaks (intervals) in which healthy cells can regenerate. To assess the success of the therapy, the bone marrow and other infected regions are checked at regular intervals.

stem cell

Another possibility of treatment is stem cell transplantation . The aim of this therapy is to replace the diseased bone marrow with healthy ones. In the case of stem cell transplantation, purified blood stem cells of a suitable donor (allogene) or more infrequently of the patient themselves (autolog) are administered to the patient by infusion. For successful therapy, all leukemia cells must first be killed. This is achieved by a strong chemotherapy and an irradiation which, in addition to the blasts, also destroys the healthy cells in the bone marrow. Since this is a stressful and risky treatment, the patient has to be considered for stem cell transplantation with regard to general condition and age. Stem cell transplantation is usually carried out only if, due to the characteristics of the leukemia cells, it must be assumed that a high risk of a relapse (recurrence) exists or if the chemotherapy has not brought sufficient treatment success.

treatment studies

Treatment of AML patients should be performed as far as possible in the context of therapies . The patient is given access to the latest scientific knowledge and is treated with innovative medicines and according to current treatment strategies. Participation in a study does not mean that the use of the drugs used is experimental. Rather, the goal is to improve the treatment strategies of AML in the future. The decision about which study is appropriate for a patient must be discussed intensively with the treating physician. Various criteria such as disease characteristics, disease phase, pretreatment, age and risk factors play a role. However, the final decision is always made by the patient himself. In Germany, numerous clinics participate in the studies of the German study groups for adult AML . The current studies can be found in the German Leukemia Study Registry .

Treatment options for a relapse

In the event of a relapse of the AML, chemotherapy is again carried out again. In late relapses, the induction therapy can be repeated in order to achieve a complete destruction of the leukemia cells (remission). In early relapses or when the disease does not respond to the therapy (therapy failure), different possibilities are explored eg with new medicines within the framework of therapy studies. Here, it is important that the treating physicians are informed about all currently available therapeutic options. The goal is to achieve a complete remission. Frequently, when age and general condition permit and when a donor can be found, stem cell transplantation is performed.


The number of cures has been growing steadily at AML over the past decades. However, regular follow-up examinations are necessary. They include a general physical examination as well as controls of blood and bone marrow. The aim is to detect signs of a relapse or late-onset of the therapy at an early stage. With the distance from the diagnosis and the therapy end, the intervals between the examinations are then extended. The treating physician also advises on the possibility of rehabilitation (rehabilitation). It is usually funded by the health insurance companies and offers a good transitional opportunity to return to a "normal" life.

Acute myeloid leukaemia(AML)

Acute myeloid leukaemia (AML)

Acute myeloid leukaemia is a form of blood cancer. This form of cancer develops in the bone marrow. Another word for blood cancer is leukaemia. The acute myeloid leukaemia abbreviation is AML.
AML is the most common form of acute adult leukaemia. The disease also occurs in children.

Bone marrow and blood cells

How does acute leukaemia develop?

Under a microscope, healthy bone marrow looks varied. It is a combination of mature blood cells of all 3 types and cells that are still in development.

No outburst

Acute myeloid leukaemia has resulted in a number of changes in hereditary material (DNA). These changes are called mutations. This does not excite certain white blood cells in the bone marrow. And is the bone marrow going to produce deviating blood cells: malignant blasts.

Uncontrolled cell division

The unruly cells continue to share. Healthy cells respond to signals from the environment. For example, the signal to stop sharing if there are enough cells. The immature cells no longer respond to these signals: they share unchecked. This causes a lot of abnormal blood cells.

Abnormal cells displace all other cells 

First, there is only a surplus of white blood cells in the bone marrow. The large amounts of abnormal white blood cells displace red blood cells, platelets and normal white blood cells. This can happen in a short period of time: days to weeks.
Later the abnormal white blood cells enter the bloodstream and sometimes into the organs. They can then overfill with abnormal cells. For example, this can be seen by: 
  • Swollen lymph nodes
  • An enlarged spleen
  • An enlarged liver

Primary or secondary AML

If the AML originates, it is called de novo leukaemia or primary AML. 

Have you previously been treated with chemotherapy for another type of cancer? Or have you previously had myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS)? Then there is therapy-related AML or secondary AML. 

People with primary AML have a better chance of cure than people with secondary AML.
Acute myeloid leukaemia(AML)

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML)

Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a malignant disease that takes its origin from immature precursors of red blood cells, blood platelets, and a portion of white blood cells. AML is the most common form of acute leukemia in adults. Thanks to the intensive research carried out over the last decades, treatment options and healing options have improved significantly. The diagnosis of an AML should therefore not lead to hopelessness. An earlier incurable illness has in many cases become curable!
Acute myelogenous leukemia (AML) is a malignant disease of the blood-forming system (blood cancer), in which an early precursor of a myeloid cell degenerates and increases uncontrolled. Myeloid cells include the red blood cells, blood platelets, and some white blood cells. In healthy people, the proliferation and renewal of the blood cells is strictly regulated. At the AML, this process has got out of control:
Through the changes of the genetic material, the affected cell begins to divide and multiply unbraked without developing into normal, functional blood cells. The resulting cells are called myelotic blasts . They spread rapidly in the bone marrow and hinder the formation of healthy blood corpuscles there. The blasts can finally be distributed in the body via the blood and other organs can be attacked and damaged.

Causes and frequency

Acute myelogenous leukemia is not a hereditary disease and, like other cancers, is neither contagious nor can it be transmitted to other people. The cause of the AML are malignant genetic changes in the bone marrow acquired in the course of life. Ionizing radiation and certain chemical substances are considered as risk factors. Even some medicines, which are used for the treatment of cancer diseases, can occasionally trigger a so-called secondary AML in rare cases even years later. Patients with various diseases of the blood or bone marrow (eg with a myelodysplastic syndrome) or genetic diseases such as Down syndrome also have an increased risk of developing AML. In the vast majority of cases, however, it remains unclear what the cause of the disease has been.

Acute myelogenous leukemia is a rare disease with 3.5 new diagnoses per 100,000 inhabitants every year, but the most frequent form of acute leukemia in Germany. Men are slightly more affected than women. In contrast to ALL, which predominantly occurs in children, AML is a disease of the elderly - about half of the patients is over 70 years.


The symptoms of the AML usually develop within a few weeks. They arise on the one hand due to the lack of normal blood cells and on the other hand by the attack of organs with myeloid blasts.
Very common symptoms
  • Blood loss (anemia, reduction of red blood cells ) leads to pallor, fatigue, fatigue, diminished efficiency, shortness of breath, general weakness and malaise
  • Fever and / or increased susceptibility to infections caused by white blood cells (leukopenia)
  • Abdominal pain and loss of appetite by enlargement (organ attack) of spleen and / or liver
  • Increasing leukocytes (leukocytosis) by the overproduction of lymphatic blasts
Common symptoms
  • Reduction of platelets (thrombopenia) causes bleeding (small punctiform skin bleeding (petechia), bruises, nasal bleeding, prolonged bleeding, eg after a visit to the dentist or after injuries, prolonged bleeding in women, rarely also hemorrhage)
  • Lymph node swelling on the neck, armpits or groin
  • Joint and bone pain caused by the spread of the blasts into the bone
Rare symptoms
  • Involvement of the brain, spinal cord or brain with neurological changes such as headache, visual disturbances, vomiting or nervous paralysis
  • Changes in the skin and chlorome (storage of blasts eg in the skin or in the bone marrow)
  • difficulty in breathing

Some patients have little discomfort and the leukemia is discovered by chance during a routine blood test.

Sunday, June 4, 2017

Breast cancer

Breast cancer

Breast cancer is a cancers type that develops in the breast tissue of women and sometimes men. This case is about breast cancer in women. Separate information is available for men with breast cancer .

Breast cancer can develop in all areas of the chest. Another word for breast cancer is mammary carcinoma. 
Breast cancer can be subdivided into the place where it develops: 
  • Ductal: The cancer has developed in a milking parlor
  • Lobular: the cancer has developed in the mammary gland

In addition, there are also rare forms of breast cancer .

If your doctor is only a prerequisite for breast cancer, it is called in situ carcinoma. There are 2 forms of in situ carcinoma: ductal and lobular. Not all breast cancer has to be of the same kind. There may be several types of cancer in one breast at a time, for example a ductal and lobular carcinoma. 
Breast cancer is further subdivided into: 
  • Hormone-sensitive or hormone-sensitive breast cancer
  • HER2 positive breast cancer and HER2 negative breast cancer
  • Triple negative breast cancer

Ductal carcinoma in situ

Are there turbulent abnormal cells in the milk tubes, which have not yet grown through the walls of the milk tubes? Then this is a precursor of breast cancer. This is a "non-invasive" tumor. Usually this is a ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS). For example, DCIS can be detected early in the population survey. 

Each year 1,800 patients have DCIS. 
Normally, milking passages feel smooth, sometimes the dairy gangs may feel hard and dizzy at a DCIS. However, in 80-85% of all DCIS cases is nothing to feel. Mammal patches are often visible on mammography. Another word for this is microcalcifications. These occur when the cancer cells in the tubes choke each other, die and then calcify. Kalkspats do not always indicate a DCIS. They may also have a benign cause. To investigate whether these lime pats are good or malignant, you get a biopsy. 

In DCIS, you usually get an operation. That's no different from invasive breast cancer. You will have a chest-lung operation with irradiation or chest irradiation without irradiation. 

DCIS does not grow through the wall of the milk tubes and, for that reason, does not cause any sowing. Sometimes there is also an invasive tumor between the DCIS. That's why you sometimes get a shield gland procedure . This applies especially to high grade DCIS (grade 3) and if the area with a DCIS is large.

Treating a DCIS reduces the risk of developing an invasive form of breast cancer. After treatment of a DCIS, the risk of cure is almost 100%. 
A DCIS that is not treated can develop into an invasive tumor. It is impossible to tell which women this happens and which women do not.

Lobular Carcinoma In situ (LCIS)

This form of breast cancer develops in a mammary gland and has not yet grown outside the wall of the mammary gland. LCIS is a precursor of breast cancer. LCIS increases the risk of developing lobular carcinoma. This stage of breast cancer is hard to find. Usually it is found by chance. 

Invasive ductal carcinoma

This cancer develops in the milking passages and can grow beyond. The invasive ductal carcinoma is the most common form of breast cancer and can feel like a hard bump. 

Invasive lobular carcinoma

This cancer occurs in the milk glands. The tumor is often only felt like a swelling of the breast. On a mammography or at an MRI, the lobular tumor is not always good to see. Under a microscope, small tumor cells can be seen, which are in strands. Lobular tumors occur less often than ductal tumors: in 5 to 15% of breast cancer. The prognosis of hormone-sensitive ductal carcinoma is the same as of a lobular carcinoma. These forms are therefore often treated in the same way. 

Another additional classification of breast cancer is based on the presence of receptors or the HER2 protein.

Hormone-sensitive or hormone-sensitive

Breast cancer can be hormone-sensitive or hormone-sensitive. That's important to know before treatment because hormonal therapy only works with hormone-sensitive breast cancer. 

Hormone-sensitive means that hormones can stimulate the tumor to grow and share. The hormones, for example estrogens, bind to receptors in the tumor cell. This is also called hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. 

If there are no receptors, you have hormone receptor-negative or hormone-sensitive breast cancer. This is also called an ER negative and / or PR negative tumor. The tumor does not grow under the influence of hormones. 

If more than 10% of the cancer cells have estrogen receptors, the cancer is called ER-positive in the Netherlands. Estrogen then stimulates tumor growth. A tumor less than 10% ER-positive is called ER negative. In progesterone sensitivity, the tumor is called PR-positive. 80% of breast cancer is ER-positive. About 65% of this ER positive breast tumor is also PR positive. 
Aromatase inhibitors reduce estrogen production, which causes the tumor to grow less or no longer. The tumor cells then die over time.

HER2-positive or HER2-negative

Breast cancer is also subdivided into HER2-positive or HER2-negative. That's important to know for treatment. HER2 positive breast cancer can be treated with targeted therapy. HER2 is a protein and stands for: Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2. 

A HER2-positive tumor means that excess HER2 protein is present on the tumor. HER2 protein stimulates tumor growth. To know if you are eligible for targeted therapy, the doctor must first investigate whether the tumor has too much HER2 protein.

Triple negative breast cancer 

In triple negative breast cancer, the protein HER2 is missing. In addition, the receptors for estrogen and progesterone (ER and PR) are also absent. Because it lacks all three, one speaks of triple negative breast cancer. Either: 3 times negative. 

Hormonal therapy correctly uses these receptors. The drug trastuzumab needs the HER2 protein. Therefore, hormonal therapy or treatment with trastuzumab in triple negative breast cancer is not useful.

Tumorin filtering lymphocytes 

The presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes (TIL's) says something about their own defense against the tumor cells. If the defects in the cells are no longer cleared by the own immune system, cancer can develop. It is known that tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes have a predictive value in triple-negative breast cancer. When there are many tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes, patients have a better prognosis.

Benign diseases

A change in or chest does not necessarily indicate cancer. Usually it is a benign condition, such as a cyst. A cyst is a cavity filled with moisture. 

Benign cells cause swelling but do not grow through other tissues and do not spread through the rest of the body. There are more benign breast complaints. They are known as mastopathy.

Does the physician not know enough about the type of abnormality? Then he always advises further research.

Symptoms of breast cancer

It's important that you know your breasts well so that you can notice a change that will help you discover an early-stage anomaly. It is also good to know if there is an increased risk. Periodic self-examination (every month on a fixed day) is not necessarily required.

In order to recognize what suspicious changes are, it is important that you know how your breasts feel normal. For example, your one breast may always be slightly bigger than the other. Whether you have been withdrawn from one or both nipples from birth to you. It is common for most women to feel bumpy beneath your skin. That is caused by the glandular tissue in the breast. 

Symptoms of breast cancer

Feeling your breasts different from what you are used to and seeing or feeling one of the following symptoms, it is wise to consult your doctor immediately: 
  • An unusual nod in the chest
  • Peeling and redness of the nipple or pelvis in the chest
  • Recently retracted nipple
  • Strict (tje) to the nipple
  • Moisture from the nipple (bloody, aqueous, greenish or milky)
  • Warm feeling chest with red discoloration of the skin
  • A bad healing place
  • Painful, different feeling spot in the chest
  • Swelling in the armpit


A nodule is a thickening in the chest that feels different from the bumps that you can feel normal.
  • A nodule means put up glandular tissue or a cavity filled with fluid (cyst).
  • Lumps can feel very different. Often it is a spot in the chest that is somewhat stiffer or harder than the rest of the tissue. Sometimes it's bullet and slides away under the fingers like knives. Sometimes it feels like a thickened disk or a string behind the nipple. Usually, nodules do not hurt and are benign. But you should not take a risk and let you examine your doctor as soon as possible if you feel a nod.

Take these changes seriously and go to the GP as soon as possible. Even though most breast disorders are innocent and benign, they can also be caused by cancer. Thus, pain in itself is not a sign that you have a distraction in the chest. However, if your chest continues to be painful, talk to your doctor. 

Your GP looks and feels your breasts carefully. He also investigates whether there are raised lymph nodes in your armpits or in your throat. If necessary, he advises you to further investigate. Or he will immediately refer you to a doctor or a momapoli. A maternity clinic is an outpatient clinic specifically for patients with suspected breast cancer. A large number of hospitals has a mammapoli. 

Scientific research in large groups of women shows that monthly self-study does not increase the risk of survival of breast cancer.